After Italy entered World War II on June 10, 1940, enemy aliens and foreign Jews were arrested and interned. They were placed in Italian-run concentration camps or in small towns off the beaten path. The two largest camps were Ferramonti, located outside of Tarsia in Calabria, and the Camp of San Bartolomeo, located in Campagna - a small town in the mountains south of Naples. Many others were sent to a system of Free Confinement called Confino Libero where Jews were sent to live in small towns in Italy but had certain restrictions placed upon them including limitations on travel, mandatory curfew and daily police check-ins. When Germany invaded Italy on September 8, 1943, all Jews were confronted with deportation and death.
There were two camps in Campagna. One was located in a former barracks, Concessione, and the other, named the Camp of San Bartolomeo, was located in a former convent attached to the active Church of San Bartolomeo. The camps were for men only. There were approximately 250 to 350 Jews located in Campagna at a time. learn more »
Ferramonti was located in a malaria-plagued piece of land, which required clearing in order to become habitable. The internees were subject to many restrictions, which were later amended. Eventually, more than 2,000 detainees (70% were Jewish) were interned here. learn more »